Lithium battery is a new high-energy battery in the 20th century development, the application diversification, provides more convenient energy, sustained and efficient energy, has brought more extension in the history of human development for human life, and has brought more extension in the history of human development. One of the invention of the invention. 1799 volute the battery, marking the birth of the chemical cell secondary battery. After more than 200 years of development, the type and number of chemical power supplies is increasing, the shape and design are constantly updated, the application is continuously expanded, the battery’s world is exciting, and the chemical power supply has become an indispensable power source of modern life. Especially after the Second World War. The rapid development in space technology, mobile communications, missiles, aerospace and other areas, and the increasing attention of modern people on energy crisis and environmental protection.
The secondary battery research and development of high-energy density has caused extensive interest. It is important progress.
Lithium batteries can be understood as a battery containing lithium elements (including metal lithium, lithium alloys, lithium ions, lithium polymers), can be divided into lithium metal batteries (minimum production and use) and lithium ion batteries (currently used in today). Because of its advantages over energy, high battery voltage, high operating temperature range, long storage life, has been widely used in military and civilian small electrical appliances, such as mobile phones, laptop, cameras, cameras, etc., part of the traditional battery It has the advantages of high operating voltage high, larger energy, small self-discharge, long cycle life, no memory effect, fast charge and discharge and no environmental pollution, is a camera, mobile phone, laptop, portable measuring instrument and other electronic devices Small and lightweight ideal power supplies. It is also an ideal light high energy source for electric vehicles in the future. Therefore, lithium-ion batteries are concentrated in modern electrochemistry.
The origin and development of lithium batteries
In the 1970s, Exxon’s M.S.WhittingHam used a titanium sulphide as a positive electrode material, and metallic lithium as a negative electrode material, which made the first lithium battery.
In 1980, J. Goodenough found that lithium cobaltate can be used as a lithium ion battery positive material.
R. R.R.Agarwal and J.r.selman of The Illinois Institute of Technology in 1982 found that lithium ions had the characteristics of embedded graphite, which is fast and reversible. At the same time, a lithium battery made of metal lithium is adopted, and its safety hazard is concentrated, so people attempt to make rechargeable batteries with a characteristic of lithium ions embed graphite. The first available lithium ion graphite electrode was successfully tried by Bell laboratory.
In 1983 M.THACKERAY, J.Gookenough et al. Found that manganese thorns were excellent positive electrode materials, with low price, stable and excellent conductive, lithium performance. It has a high degree of decomposition, and the oxidation resistance is much lower than lithium cobaltate. Even if there is a short circuit, overcharge, it is possible to avoid combustion, explosion.
In 1989, A. Manthiram and J.GookEnough found that the positive electrode using the polymerization of the anion will produce a higher voltage.
In 1991, Sony issued the first commercial lithium-ion battery. Subsequently, the lithium ion battery has innovated the face of consumer electronics.
In 1996, Padhi and Goodenough found a phosphate having an olivine structure, such as lithium phosphate (LiFePO4), more favorable than the conventional positive material, and thus has become the current mainstream positive material.
Li-Ion Batteries is the development of lithium batteries. So before introducing Li-ION, first introduce lithium batteries. For example, the button battery belongs to a lithium battery. The positive electrode material of the lithium battery is manganese dioxide or thionyl chloride, and the negative electrode is lithium. After the battery pack is completed, the battery has a voltage without charging. Such a battery can also be charged, but the cycle performance is not good. During the charge and discharge cycle process, the lithium lactary crystal is easily formed, resulting in short circuit inside the battery, so that this battery is forbidden to charge.
Later, Sony, Japan invented the lithium battery with a carbon material as a negative electrode, and a lithium battery with a lithium-containing compound, during charge and discharge, only lithium ions, which is a lithium ion battery.
In the early 1990s, Japan Sony Energy Development Corporation and Canadian Moli Energy Co., Ltd. have developed a new type of lithium-ion battery, which not only has good performance, but also has no pollution to the environment. With the rapid development of information technology, hand-held machinery and electric vehicles, the demand for high-efficiency power supply has grown sharply, and lithium batteries have become one of the most rapid development of development.
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