From an environmentally friendly perspective, the problem of contamination of lead-acid batteries cannot be avoided. The lead plate of the lead-acid battery, the sulfuric acid fluid is a contaminant that is difficult to degrade. The safety of lead-acid batteries and battery attenuation affects the problem of the headache for the playground. Take two golfuses as an example, the common market is equipped with 6 175 AH lead-acid batteries.
New car with such a battery is about 40km over time, but with the increase of the battery charge and discharge capacity of the battery will be getting worse, even less than 10km. The decrease in the life will greatly affect the normal use of the ball. These problems in lead-acid batteries have not been resolved from the technical perspective. However, the appearance of lithium batteries is the dark blue flower, and the lead-acid power battery has become an inevitable direction of development using lithium batteries.
As a company engaged in the research and development, production and sales of golf carts, the lithium battery has been deeply studied. Here, we share some knowledge and use a brief introduction to the use of lithium battery and advantages.
Introduction to the type of lithium battery and its characteristics:
At present, the lithium battery can be divided into three types: lithium manganate, lithium iron phosphate, and ternary materials.
Lithium manganese acid is one of the relatives of the lithium ion positive electrode material. Compared to traditional positive electrode materials such as sorrate, lithium manganate has rich resources, low cost, no pollution, safe safety, good multi-performance, etc., is the ideal power battery positive material, but its poor cycle performance and electricity Chemical stability greatly limits its industrialization.
Lithium iron phosphate as a lithium power battery material is only in recent years. The time for domestic development of large-capacity lithium iron phosphate batteries is approximately in 2005. Its safety performance is unable to compare with the loop life, which is also the most important technical indicators of the power battery. Single-section battery 1c charge and discharge cycle life of 2000 times. Single-section battery overcharge voltage 30V does not burn, puncture does not explode. Lithium iron phosphate positive material makes a large-capacity lithium ion battery more easily used in series to meet the needs of frequent charge discharge of electric vehicles.
Lithium iron phosphate has no toxic, non-pollution, good safety, extensive source of raw material, low price, long life, is an ideal positive material for a new generation of lithium-ion batteries.
The lithium phosphate battery also has a disadvantage, such as a small vibration density of the lithium phosphate positive electrode material, and the volume of the lithium iron phosphate battery of the like is greater than the lithium ion battery such as lithium cobalt, there is no advantage in the micro battery. Due to the inherent characteristics of lithium iron phosphate materials, it is determined that its low temperature can be inferior to other positive electrode materials such as lithium manganese acid. In general, for a single electrical cell (note is a single only instead of battery pack, for battery packs, the measured low temperature performance may be slightly high, and this is related to heat dissipation conditions), the capacity of 0 ¡ã C is maintained. The rate is about 60 to 70%, – 10 ¡ã C is 40 ~ 55%, and 20 to 40% at – 20 ¡ã C. Such low temperature performance clearly does not meet the requirements of the power supply.
There is a problem of solo cells in lithium iron phosphate. The life of the monomer phosphate lithium battery life is currently more than 2,000, but the life of the battery pack will be greatly reduced, it may be 500 times. Because the battery pack is made of a large number of monomer battery strings, the working state is better than the group of people to run together with a rope, even if everyone is short run, if everyone’s movement is not high, the team is not running, overall The speed is even slower than the slowest single player running. The battery pack is the same, and the life is only close to the level of the cell. So the battery is not applicable to a high voltage or a large capacity vehicle.
The ternary polymer lithium battery refers to a lithium battery of a positive material using a lithium nickel cobalt-manganese ternary positive electrode material. There are many kinds of positive electrode materials of the lithium ion battery, mainly with lithium cobaltate, lithium manganese acid, lithium nickel, three-dimensional material, lithium iron phosphate, and the like. The three-way materials have integrated the advantages of lithium cobaltate, lithium nickellate and lithium manganese acid, with high capacity, low cost, good safety, etc., which gradually occupies a certain market share in small lithium battery, and The dynamic lithium battery is a good development prospect.
For lithium batteries, cobalt metals are essential materials. However, the price of metal cobalt is high, and there is a toxicity in one hand. Regardless of the technology-leading Japanese and Korean companies or domestic battery manufacturers have been committed to the battery “less cobaltization”. Under this trend, nickel-cobalt-manganese acid-based three-membered materials prepared by nickel-salt, cobalt salt, and manganese salts are gradually respected. From the perspective of chemical properties, the ternary material belongs to excessive metal oxides, and the energy density of the battery is high.
Although the effect of cobalt is still indispensable in terms of ternary materials, the mass fraction is usually controlled around 20%, and the cost is significantly reduced. Also, the advantages of lithium cobaltate and lithium nickellate are simultaneously. Over-electric car, small to smartphones, wear equipment or charging treasure, this new type of technology is fully applicable. Tesra first applied three-yuan battery in electric cars, and Models’s battery life can reach 486 kilometers, and the battery capacity reached 85KWH, and 8,142 3.4ah Panasonic 18650 batteries were used. Engineers put these batteries average one by one in the form of bricks and slices, and the battery pack is located on the body bottom plate.
The power and safety of the battery are best to carry the ternary battery to the golf ball.
Battery core contrast
Equal capacity battery group trial comparison
From theoretical calculation and actual test, it is concluded that Japanese Panasonic three yuan lithium battery used by Tesla cars is excellent, suitable for use on golf carts.
In addition to the car, the power equipment such as Telecom Base Station uses a large number of lithium batteries, and lithium battery has been mature. With a large number of lithium battery, the cost of lithium battery is also declining.
Equipped with lithium battery on a golf cart, is still very difficult and challenged from the technical level. Specifically, how to control the consistency of lithium battery cells, power management system (BMS) intelligent matching degree, charger charging curve and lithium battery charging curve matching, etc. The lithium battery is more fine, such as the lithium battery power display is controlled by electrical signal, and the lead-acid battery reflects the amount of power in the actual voltage. For example, there must be a communication protocol between the charging machine and the lithium battery management system of the lithium battery. This requires the matching of each component in the lithium battery. If it is not good, it will affect the normal work of the lithium battery. In addition, due to the high density of the lithium battery, the size, light weight, the golf cart that matches the lithium battery needs to be redesigned, does not simply put the lithium battery on the existing golf cart. First, according to the work of the endless mileage, select the battery capacity battery, then determine the battery volume and weight, and finally optimize the design of golf chassis suspension. Finally achieve the best comfort by continuously adjusting and optimizing the hardness of the damping spring.
Lithium-e-version golf cart actual work performance and performance is still a tribute. First, the cost of a lithium-e-version golf cart will be relatively high, but the comprehensive cost of the lead-acid battery and lithium battery in the life cycle of the ball, the lithium-e-version golf cart is still economical. Calculated with 5 -6 years of service life, the lithium battery does not need to replace the intermediate, and the lead-acid battery will replace the battery for about two years, and the daily maintenance cost of the lead-acid battery is high, and the battery fluid is often added. Once maintenance is not in place, the lead-acid battery is also easily damaged. The cost and maintenance cost of the replacement lead-acid battery is much higher than the cost of using lithium battery.
Second, the lithium battery decay is small, and the vehicle can be used frequently. The vehicle’s attendance rate is much higher than the lead-acid version of the ball, and the stadium can be put into the vehicle. Lithium-edition vehicles are maintained simply, and there is no need to add battery fluids and provinces. In addition, since the lithium battery car is relatively light, the wear of the vehicle’s tires, damper, and brakes, etc. are much more wear.
In summary, lithium battery technology is mature. The performance of the lithium-e-vast golf cart will be greatly exceeded by lead-acid vehicles from technology and use. The reason why there is no large quantity is in the technical bottleneck and cost constraint, and there are people’s habits. This requires related R & D staff to work hard, to the ground, and people need people to constantly accept new things. Observe more and more electric vehicles on the street, review the development of gasoline vehicles, and facts that automotive electricity is irreversible. Golf cart lithium electrification is also a development trend, and more and more lithium battery balls will serve the vast battles in the future.
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