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Overview of Physicochemical Properties of Lithium Ion Battery Organic Liquid Electrolyte

Return Listsource:Gratene date: 2022-06-17

Overview of Physicochemical Properties of Lithium Ion Battery Organic Liquid ElectrolyteThe organic liquid electrolyte used in a lithium ion battery is an electrolyte solution formed in an organic non-nitrated mixed solvent in a suitable lithium salt. For the convenience of expression, it is simply referred to as an organic electrolyte or an electrolyte. Common organic liquid electrolytes are typically a system of 1 mol / L lithium salt / mixed carbonate solvent. As the medium that transmits charge and mass transfer process, the electrolyte suitable for lithium ion batteries usually meets the following requirements:

A. High electrical conductivity in a wide temperature range, preferably (1 ~ 2) x10-3s / cm or more, the number of lithium ion migration is as high as possible;
B. Liquid temperature range (liquid) width, at least in the range of -20 to 80 ¡ã C.
C. Good chemical stability, with electrode active substances (such as positive, negative electrode), collective body, diaphragm, etc., without reactions;
D. Good compatibility with the electrode material, form a stable, effective passivation film;
E. Electrochemical stability, high decomposition voltage, to reduce battery internal pressure and increase in battery internal pressure;
F. Flash point, high combustion point, good security;
G. Environmentally friendly, decomposing products have less impact on the environment.

The above requirements are important guarantees for realizing low internal resistance, long life and high safety of lithium ion batteries. Lithium salt, organic solvent selection and optimization of electrolyte solution determine the cycle efficiency, operating voltage, operating temperature and storage period of the battery, etc., is one of the key technologies for developing lithium-ion batteries. In a sense, the lithium ion battery liquid electrolyte has a decisive role in battery performance.
After decades of research and practice, the electrolytic liquid used in lithium-ion batteries is substantially formed, and the commercial electrolyte generally selects LiPF6 as a lithium salt, and the solvent is mostly carbonate (EC) and a dikyl carbonate (DMC) or Mixed solvent made of diethyl carbonate (DEC). In addition, there is a small amount of electrolyte based on special purpose. These electrolyte systems support the commercialization of lithium ion batteries and future research and development 

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