Although in theory, any redox reaction can be designed to become a battery. However, due to many actual situation, the secondary battery commonly used in modern life is mainly nickel-cadmium batteries (Ni-CD), nickel-hydrogen batteries, lead acid, lithium batteries (Li -ion), polymer lithium battery (reusable alkaline), and the like.
The development of lithium batteries has passed three stages:
From 1969 to 1990, the main representative is a mercury battery (zinc mercury battery) applied in quartz watches and lead-acid batteries applied to automotive; the second phase of 1990 to 2000 and 2006 In the third stage, with the rise of mobile phones, the rapid development of mobile phone, and the rapid development of 3C products and hybrid vehicles, these two stages of commercial batteries are mainly nickel-hydrogen batteries and lithium batteries.
In 2017, the battery industry will be dominated by a lithium battery having a lower energy cost. The lithium battery is used to move in the positive electrode material and the electron movement in the charging discharge process to achieve normal operation, and its energy cost And performance is more unparalleled than traditional lead-acid batteries.
Now in the fourth commercial phase. From a development trend, the lithium-ion battery has become the main direction of the power battery. At present, the commercial battery in Japan, the United States, Europe, and South Korea is mainly used by lithium-ion batteries. South Korea, Japan, China dominates to lithium batteries in the world, sorting is the second in Korea, Japan second, China third.
Compared with other secondary batteries, the advantages of lithium batteries are mainly based on the following aspects:
A. Working voltage is generally about 3.6V. Sometimes even up to 4V, which is much higher than other secondary batteries, which is one of the most prominent advantages of lithium batteries.
B. Although the carbonaceous material replaces the metal lithium to reduce the mass specific capacity and volume specific capacity of the material, the lithium battery is generally three times more than three times in the actual application. Therefore, the actual volume is not significantly lower than the energy well. It is significantly higher than other secondary batteries.
C. Since the self-discharge cells are first charged and discharge cycles. The positive and negative poles are varying degrees. It can prevent battery self-discharge.
D. The circulating life long battery was previously cycled, and the cycle efficiency was close to 100%, and the cycle life under 100% discharge depth (DOD) was 500 times.
E. The structure of the lithium reservoir electrode material used in lithium battery without memory is remarkably. Does not produce a memory effect during the electrochemical cycle.
F. Safety Good lithium compounds are stable than metal lithium, which neither the lithium in the battery electrochemistry, and does not produce dead lithium, and everyone improves the safety performance of the battery.
U. No ring pollution battery does not contain PB, CD, HG and other toxic and hazardous substances. And the battery itself is a highly closed system. It does not cause pollution to the environment.
Based on the above advantages, the lithium battery has been developed in recent years, and the performance indicators are constantly increasing. The negative electrode material is developed from the initial petroleum coke to the intermediate phase graphite microspheres and cheap and easy-to-have spherical graphite materials. ; Positive material, the first Licoc in the mountains: developed to the nearest L-INO2, Linio, and LIMN2O; well storage, and is transitioning to a plurality of compound transition metallic oxides and nano oxide; electrolyte Hill single organic Liquid electrolytes into liquid electrolytes, polymer electrolytes, and solid electrolyte wells. On this basis, lithium batteries are developing in diverse, high performance, low cost and safer direction. Its application field is gradually Broadensation. Not only the market of nickel-hydrogen batteries, nickel-chromium batteries are extruded, but also to large lead-acid batteries.
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