Lithium batteries are considered to be the most promising energy storage device due to its high energy density, long cycle life, and memory effect. At present, conventional lithium-ion batteries are used in organic liquid electrolytes, although liquid electrolytes can provide higher ionic conductivity and good interface contact, but they cannot be safely used for metal lithium systems, low lithium ion migration, low, easy to leak, Problems such as volatile, flammable, safety, have hindered the further development of lithium batteries. Compared with the liquid electrolyte and inorganic solid electrolyte, the whole solid polymer electrolyte has good safety performance, softness, easy to process the film, excellent interface contact, etc., and also suppresses the problem of lithium dendrites. Currently received extensive attention.
The organic liquid electrolyte is an electrolyte obtained by dissolving a lithium salt electrolyte in a polar aprotic organic solvent. The electrolyte has a good electrochemical stability, low coagulation point, high boiling point, can be used in a wide temperature range, but an organic solvent The abilities of the normal electricity, large viscosity, dissolved inorganic salt electrolyte, is not high in electrical conductivity (generally from 10-2 to 10-3 s / cm, 1 to 2 orders lower than the water solution), is particularly sensitive to trace water, including The amount of water must be controlled below 20 mg / kg. Such electrolytes The mechanism of action in lithium ion batteries is complex, the choice of lithium salt and solvent, the interface behavior of the electrolyte, the use of the electrode material, the use of the additive, the use of the battery pack, and the use of the battery, etc. have a complex impact on the battery properties. Therefore, the selection and optimization of the appropriate electrolyte system has always been the goal of people constantly studying and exploring.
None exceptions in the liquid electrolyte of the commercial lithium ion battery is a carbonate solution of LiPF6. This electrolyte is a mixed economy of lithium salt in two or three carbonate, high dielectric constant. It is conducive to the dissociation of the lithium salt, usually EC; the other or two kinds of carbonate is low, usually DMC, DEC, EMC, etc., helps to increase the migration rate of lithium ions. However, the organic liquid lithium-ion battery is easy to leak, and the product must use a solid metal casing, the model size is fixed, lack of flexibility; the flammability of the organic solvent has poor safety, and the protection measures for the battery must be very perfect.
19 Years Wight I found that polyoxyethylene (PEO) and alkali metal salt coordination had ionic conductivity. In 1978, Amand proposed that as a rechargeable battery electrolyte containing alkali metal electrodes, a research boom of polymer electrolyte has been set up. The solid polymer electrolyte has the advantages of non-reactive activity between the electrode materials, good flexibility, etc., can overcome the above disadvantages of the liquid lithium ion battery, allowing volume changes during electrode material discharge, and impact than liquid electrolyte. Vibration and deformation, easy to add L-shaped, can make the battery in different shapes depending on the need, in recent years, one of the important electrolyte materials of the lithium-ion battery is introduced into the polymer matrix such as PC, EC, etc. Solid-liquid composite gel electrolyte, the three-membered electrolyte composed of a polymer compound, a lithium salt, and a polar organic solvent, a solid electrolyte and a liquid electrolyte in 1997, US Bellcore will gel-type polymer The solid electrolyte is used in a lithium ion battery. This electrolyte can be bonded together with a positive and negative electrolyte, and the battery can reduce the likelihood of the battery leakage liquid using aluminum-plastic composite film.
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